I have been enjoying the podcast Tests and the Rest, where hosts Amy Seeley and Mike Bergin go deep on testing, from the College Board to IQ to AP exams. They just dropped an episode where they interviewed me about math contests like AMC and MathCounts. Here’s a link: https://gettestbright.com/competitive-math-and-testing/

# 2020 AIME II #8 Video Solution

Define a sequence recursively by and for integers . Find the least value of such that the sum of the zeros of exceeds .

# 2020 AIME II #9 Video Solution

While watching a show, Ayako, Billy, Carlos, Dahlia, Ehuang, and Frank sat in that order in a row of six chairs. During the break, they went to the kitchen for a snack. When they came back, they sat on those six chairs in such a way that if two of them sat next to each other before the break, then they did not sit next to each other after the break. Find the number of possible seating orders they could have chosen after the break.

# 2020 AIME II #12 video solution

I could not find a great solution to the 2020 AIME II #12, so I created a video solution myself. It is a nice geometric problem with lots of inequalities.

# MathCounts Eligibility

I receive many questions from parents about their students’ eligibility for MathCounts. MathCounts is the premier middle school math contest, the one all the AoPS kids talk about on the discussion boards. Students are allowed 3 years of eligibility to participate and once you are in high school you are ineligible. Middle school students participate no matter what math course they are studying, even if it is at an advanced level.

Depending on who you talk to, some people argue that younger students who are talented in math are allowed to participate. This may technically be true, but the reality is that MathCounts is very competitive, if not at your local Chapter, then at State or Nationals. Students spend a lot of time preparing for MathCounts. Like *a lot* a lot.

For some idea of how top students perform, check out a recent MathCounts National Countdown Round. Even if your student can keep up with these kids, I would not enter them in MathCounts before sixth grade. We’ve had students win at Nationals twice, but we’ve never had a middle school student three-peat there. Maybe your student can be the one. Don’t squander their personal best by participating too early.

TL;DR Don’t start your younger student in MathCounts before middle school. Use your 3 years of eligibility in 6th – 8th grades.

# LaTex for AoPS in 3 Lessons

My students who take AoPS online classes want to learn LaTex, the mathematical typesetting code. Equations are easy to read, your solutions look pretty, and for young students it can be something of an alpha move. I get them started with three basic lessons and from there they are pretty much using it independently.

Lesson 1: How to delimit LaTex.

You need to tell your environment where they should use Latex and where they shouldn’t. LaTex typically ignores spaces so if you don’t delimit it properly, you may end up with At AoPS, you enclose your math with a single dollar sign at the start and end. So I ask my students to type in

$2+1=3$ This should render as Nearly every simple math expression you put between dollar signs will look nicer. Sometimes I just let them try that for a week before Lesson 2.

Lesson 2: Curly braces.

Curly braces: **{ }** are another delimiter for LaTex arguments. I ask my student to type $3^2=9$ and this will render as expected: . Then I ask them to type $2^10=1024$ and it renders as . The exponent did not format correctly because Latex didn’t know there were digits in the exponent.

So I have my students type $2^{10}=1024$ enclosing the digit exponent in curly braces. And we see: as expected.

Lesson 3: Fractions

I have my student write $\frac{1}{2}$ and it renders a pretty fraction like this: . This is their first example of a defined Latex command, and we use the backslash to alert LaTex to not write “frac”.

These three lessons illustrate the logic of LaTex and are usually enough to launch my students as independent LaTex users. For more Latex code, I direct them to this AoPS site or I advise them to google something like “Latex summation sign.” AoPS also offers a test site where students can practice their code.

# Math Kangaroo vs. MOEMS

Parents often ask me about math contests for elementary students. The two heavyweights are Math Kangaroo and MOEMS:

Math Kangaroo | MOEMS | |

Schedule | Annual | Monthly x5 months |

Time | 75 mintes | 30 minutes + 20 minutes recap |

Questions | 24-30 | 5 |

Prizes | toy, t shirt, certificate | certificate, trophy, pins, patches |

Difficulty Levels | 6: grades 1-12 | 2: elementary and middle |

Practice | Books sold online (Amazon) | individual exams on MK site (solutions extra) |

The popularity for MK is a head-scratcher for me. I do think it’s a great exam and students can learn a lot from studying past contests. The questions are a bit more “puzzley” in nature than what I find on the AMC.

Working against MK is that it’s an annual exam; once and you’re done, then you go home. It lasts over an hour, which is a long time for most first graders. You can purchase their old exams, but only individually, the solutions cost extra, and the online store is awkward to navigate.

MOEMS stands for Math Olympiad for Elementary and Middle Schools. I have my students take the exam, turn in their papers, and then immediately following we go through each question one at a time. I write the problem on the board, and ask for volunteers to explain how their solved the problem. While they describe their solution I scribe for them while also helping them with their newly learned mathematical vocabulary. For example a student may say, “I connect those 2 points on the left.” I may gently say, “Oh, you mean you draw a segment connecting vertices A and B?”

I continue by asking if there are any alternative solutions. Students learn from each other, which makes the problems seem within their grasp. Over the course of a season, the students build friendships that lead naturally to higher level math contests like MathCounts and ARML.

Old exams with solutions are published in books that can be easily found on the MOEMS website or Amazon. You can participate officially by paying a registration fee, and at the end of the season they provide you with trophies, pins, and certificates. Or you can use the old exams unofficially in small groups or individually, and on your own schedule and rules.

The word “Olympiad” in the name conjures the International Mathematical Olympiad for high school students, but there is no relation between the two math contests. In fact, it’s a friendly collegial math activity that’s perfect for our younger math students.

My own affection for MOEMS stems from my personal experience with my homeschooled daughters. Over several seasons they befriended other mathy kids while I befriended their parents, making it easy to recruit team members for MathCounts and other activities. MK is homeschool friendly, and I would put MOEMS as homeschool agnostic, not exactly welcoming, but easy to work with.

# Linear Equations: Heads Up!

Section 8.2 of *AoPS Introduction to Algebra* introduces (i) the idea that a linear equation looks like and (ii) the slope of the line. With some students I get in a pinch because sometimes they are already somewhat familiar with graphing so in an effort to be efficient we rush into the definition of slope and then subsequently backtrack because of confusion.

So this week I was prepared for my student.

We work the problem where we first calculate the slope of a line (Problem 8.7), using *pairs* of points to get the idea that the slope is the same everywhere on the line, no matter which points you choose. But I was more careful. Before getting into I give him a heads up. “Now I know this formula is going to look like it’s coming from outer space, but just bear with me for a second while we do these calculations.” Then we calculate this unnamed ratio for 2 pairs of points and we find they have the same result, . Then I ask him:

“What do you think? Do you think this formula will be no matter which points we choose?”

Thoughtful silence. We had carefully traced the path of Hopsalot the rabbit, so I reminded that between every consecutive point, we go right units and up unit. Eyes light up. He gets it, that the ratio is always going to be the same.

Even better, we didn’t actually finish the problem, or name that this ratio is called slope. I like leaving him with this epiphany for a while so he can internalize it a bit. Then we can review this once more before proceeding.

Since we use the slope to generate the point-slope form of the line, it’s imperative that students understand that the slope is the same everywhere on the line, no matter which 2 points we choose. We use this property to generate the equation because it’s one of the few things that consistently describes every point on the line. I’m going to give him this heads up and reiterate as much as possible that the slope is an inherent property of a line, no matter which 2 points you choose.

# Mistakes I Do and Don’t Correct

**Math Mistakes I Will Not Tolerate: Stream of Consciousness**

Some students use the equals sign to mean “…and then…” As in, I have apples and then someone takes away and then I’m left with and then someone gives me more apples and then I have would look like this:

Now we have an illogical statement where on the left we have and on the right we see that it is equal to . I think this is part of the reason so many students find math frustrating: they see illogical statements like this one and think math is a subject where rules can be made and broken at whim. I am quick to correct errors like this.

**Math Mistakes I Allow: Inefficient Exploration**

My students who are new to algebra will not always choose the most efficient solution. For example, when solving this equation for x:

an experienced student will first subtract from both sides and then divide both sides by . Some of my less experienced students have more creative ways of solving the equation. They may choose to first divide by sides by , yielding

Or they will begin by subtracting from both sides or any number of unusual attempts to isolate . My mantra is “As long as it’s legal, we can try it.” The most fundamental thing a student needs to learn about algebra is the idea that when you do the same thing to both sides of an equation, you still have equality of both sides. This is my main focus, that if they do something to the left hand side of the equation, they must do the same thing to the right side. If the cost is a little extra time spent in going down some inefficient rabbit holes, so be it.

The other reason I tolerate Inefficient Exploration is that it won’t always be obvious how to solve a problem, *until you try to solve it.* Many students when they encounter a problem they don’t know how to solve will freeze. They may have some ideas, but since they don’t know if it will work, they don’t take the risk of trying. I want my students to be like the one who decides to divide by first, just to see if it will work. It might, it might not, but we’ll never know unless we try.

# AoPS Options: 4 Ways to Study!

Many parents contact me because they are confused by the options for studying AoPS curriculum. And it is confusing! Here is a summary of options with my list of advantages and disadvantages:

(1) **AoPS textbook only**.

Advantages: go at your own pace, more practice problems, if parent teaches it is least expensive option

Disadvantages: no group/community learning, may need to hire a tutor (becoming most expensive option)

(2) **AoPS online class**.

Advantages: student is on a set schedule, i.e., you know exactly when you will be finished with a course; student joins the AoPS online community of math loving students, opportunity to learn and practice Latex skills, writing problems evaluated by human teacher.

Disadvantages: students often do not take deadlines seriously and do not complete homework problems by deadline (homework extensions only compound this problem), little flexibility for family schedules, some students do not like text-based class, fewer homework problems.

(3) **AoPS self-paced class**. (Prealgebra only)

Advantages: very similar to online class without online classroom, but with great flexibility in timing

Disadvantages: students historically tend to not complete the class, access limited to 9 months per half course.

(4) **AoPS Academy courses**.

Advantages: In person classes with online video during pandemic

Disadvantages: Limited campus sites

I support students who are using all these options with an online whiteboard and videoconferencing.

For example with the textbook only option (1), I work through the problems with the students and then assign the Exercises, Review Problems and Challenge Problems as homework.

I also support students who are taking online classes (options 2,3,4) with light homework help. Sometimes I remind them of key points from lecture, a short prompt here and there to get them started. I also model solid mathematical documentation on the whiteboard to help them avoid errors and improve their writing problem responses. I also get them started with Latex (more exciting than it sounds!).